Exploring Kaziranga National Park : History, Geography and Biodiversity

Kaziranga National Park is a beautiful wildlife sanctuary located in Assam, India. It is home to many endangered species of animals and plants, making it one of the most important protected areas in the world. In this article, we will explore some of the key aspects of Kaziranga National Park including its history, geography and biodiversity.

History of Kaziranga National Park

Kaziranga National Park is situated in the northeastern state of Assam and is known for its rich biodiversity, especially the population of one-horned rhinoceros. The park is spread across an area of 430 square kilometers and was declared a national park in the year 1974.

The story of Kaziranga National Park dates back to the early 20th century when the area was used for hunting purposes by the British. The hunting of rhinoceros in the area was rampant, and the population of the species was rapidly declining. In 1905, Mary Victoria Leiter Curzon, the wife of the then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, visited the area and was appalled by the rampant killing of rhinoceros. She urged her husband to take action, and in 1908, a portion of the area was declared a reserve forest.

In 1916, the area was declared a game sanctuary, and the hunting of animals was banned. This led to a gradual increase in the population of one-horned rhinoceros and other wildlife in the area. In 1938, Kaziranga has declared a wildlife sanctuary, and it remained so until 1974 when it was declared a national park.

YearKey Fact
1905Established as Kaziranga Proposed Reserve Forest.
1950Renamed to Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary
1974The Government of India declared the area as a National Park. By this time, the area of the park had increased to about 430 sq.km from the original 232 sq.km
1985UNESCO declared Kaziranga National Park as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was home to 2/3rd of the world’s population of rhinoceroses.
2006The Indian Government declared it as a Tiger Reserve after the Tiger Population dropped. Now, it has one of the highest densities of tigers in the world.
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Geography of Kaziranga National Park

  • Location: Located in northeast India in Golaghat district (Assam state); borders Karbi Anglong Hills on western side; near Kohima town 175 km away from Guwahati city.
  • Size & Elevation: 858 sq km area lies between 26°30’-26°45’N latitude; geographical height ranges from 40-80 m above mean sea level
  • Natural Resources: Water resources include two major rivers – Brahmaputra River at north & Dhansiri River at southwest plus several streams (Chapari stream) flowing through park throughout year supporting wetland ecosystems like beels/swamps & marshes “Biodiversity”.
  • Fauna : One Horned Rhinoceros habitat; wild Elephant population totaling about 2200 as per last count season; 28 tigers with highest density reported out of all tiger reserves ; plenty predators also seen such insects fowls reptiles amphibians fishes together with aquatic organism forming base for food chain within national park .
  • Flora & Vegetation : Consists mainly moist tropical semi evergreen forests rapidly changing secondary grasslands among vast swaths marshy land bordered nonarable fields nearby village settlements . Variety tree species grow here typically typical sal bamboo canes litseaaetc combine dominate canopy structure there due presence huge logs dead wood environment rich their contribution sustaining ecosystem balance ecology functioning long term conservation success animals plant forms inhabiting wilderness if properly managed well monitored according standards set Indian government then brighter chances future sustainers survive into modern era change climate condition that threaten existence numerous natural sites earth successfully running today should would seeing rising sun again soon day dawn break shimmering light signify hope tranquility being brought visitors around planet fostering balance harmony let us join hands efforts create conditions positive steps taken protect these precious regions socio economical development coexistence sought hold bright candle enlighten way right direction free nature damaging greed upcoming generations experience first hand joy pondering thoughts arising ignorance corrupted minds failed dreams extinguished darkness true possibility everlasting peace laying foundations shapesmoralsour society shareworldmake better place live.
  • Climate of kaziranga national park : Kaziranga National Park experiences a subtropical climate with hot summers and mild winters. The park receives heavy rainfall during the monsoon season from June to September, which contributes to the lush vegetation and water bodies in the park. The average temperature during the summer months of April to June is around 37°C, while the winter months of December to February have an average temperature of around 5°C. The best time to visit the park is during the dry season from November to April when the weather is pleasant and wildlife sightings are more frequent. However, visitors should be prepared for occasional showers during this time as well.

Wildlife at Kaziranga National Park

Kaziranga National Park is home to a wide range of wildlife, including the famous one-horned rhinoceros, elephants, tigers, wild buffalos, and deer. The park is also home to a diverse range of bird species, making it a paradise for birdwatchers. The park is one of the few places in the world where the one-horned rhinoceros can be found in significant numbers.

Kaziranga’s One-Horned Rhinoceros

Kaziranga National Park is home to the world’s largest population of one-horned rhinoceroses. These majestic creatures are a symbol of pride for the people of Assam and are a major tourist attraction.

One-horned rhinoceroses, also known as Indian rhinoceroses, are listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) due to habitat loss, poaching, and other threats. Kaziranga National Park has been instrumental in the conservation of this species, and its successful conservation efforts have become a model for rhinoceros conservation around the world.

The park is spread over an area of 430 square kilometers and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Apart from one-horned rhinoceroses, Kaziranga is also home to other endangered species like the Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, and Hoolock gibbon. The park has implemented various conservation measures, such as anti-poaching patrols, habitat restoration, and community-based conservation programs, to protect these animals and their habitats.

The one-horned rhinoceros is a massive animal, with a weight ranging from 1,800 to 2,700 kilograms. It is known for its distinctive horn, which can grow up to 25 inches long. The horn is made of keratin, the same material as human hair and nails, and is believed to have medicinal properties in traditional Chinese medicine.

Kaziranga’s one-horned rhinoceros population has faced challenges over the years, including poaching for its horn and habitat loss due to human encroachment. However, the conservation efforts in the park have helped to stabilize and even increase the population of these animals. As of 2021, the population of one-horned rhinoceroses in Kaziranga National Park was estimated to be around 2,640, which is a testament to the success of the conservation efforts in the park.

Kaziranga and Wetland Bird Census 2019

Kaziranga National Park is also a vital habitat for numerous bird species. To monitor the bird population and their distribution, an annual Wetland Bird Census is conducted in Kaziranga National Park.

The Wetland Bird Census 2019 was conducted in Kaziranga National Park in January 2019, with the participation of forest officials, local bird watchers, and volunteers. The census covered 40 wetlands within the park, including lakes, ponds, and marshes.

The census revealed that Kaziranga National Park is home to over 120 bird species, including many migratory species that travel to the park during the winter months. Some of the notable species that were observed during the census include the greater adjutant stork, lesser adjutant stork, black-necked stork, Asian openbill stork, common teal, ruddy shelduck, and the bar-headed goose.

The census also provided important data on the distribution and abundance of these bird species in the wetlands of Kaziranga National Park. The data can be used to monitor the population trends and conservation status of these species and to develop effective conservation strategies.

Kaziranga National Park is a crucial habitat for wetland birds, and the Wetland Bird Census provides valuable information on their populations and distribution. The census is an important tool for conservationists and wildlife officials to monitor the health of the ecosystem and to protect the birds and their habitats.

Transport of Kaziranga National park

Kaziranga National Park is well-connected by road, rail, and air transport. The nearest airport to the park is the Jorhat Airport, which is approximately 97 kilometers away. The Guwahati Airport is also a convenient option, located around 217 kilometers from the park. The nearest railway station is Furkating Junction, which is approximately 75 kilometers from the park. From the airport or railway station, visitors can hire a taxi or take a bus to reach the park. Local buses and private taxis are also available from nearby towns and cities. Once inside the park, visitors can use the designated safari vehicles to explore the park and its wildlife. Some areas of the park are accessible by elephant-back safaris as well. It is important to note that private vehicles are not allowed inside the park to preserve the natural habitat and wildlife.

Visitor activities of Kaziranga National park

Kaziranga National Park offers a range of visitor activities for nature and wildlife enthusiasts. One of the most popular activities is jeep safari, which takes visitors on a thrilling ride through the park’s tall grasses and forests, providing the opportunity to spot the park’s famous one-horned rhinoceros, tigers, elephants, and other wildlife. Another popular activity is the elephant safari, where visitors can ride on the back of an elephant and explore the park’s interiors. The park also offers birdwatching tours, boat rides on the Brahmaputra River, and visits to nearby tea plantations. In addition, the park has several nature trails and trekking routes for those who prefer to explore the park on foot. Visitors can also learn about the park’s conservation efforts and local culture by visiting the park’s interpretation center and attending cultural shows organized by the park’s authorities.

See Also

The Nature Beauty of Palani WaterfallTop 10 Highest Waterfalls in India
Nagarjuna Sagar DamBiosphere Reserves in India

FAQ About Kaziranga National Park

Q. Kaziranga national park is famous for which animal?

Ans. Kaziranga national park is famous for the Indian one-horned rhinoceros.

Q. Where is Kaziranga national park located?

Ans. Kaziranga National Park is located in the state of Assam, in northeastern India. It is situated in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of Assam and covers an area of 430 square kilometers.

Q. Which month Kaziranga National Park open?

Ans. Kaziranga National Park is open for visitors from 1st November to 30 April. The park remains closed for visitors during the monsoon season, from 1st May to 31 October, as the heavy rainfall and flooding make it difficult to navigate the park’s terrain.

Q. What is the accommodation like in Kaziranga National Park?

Ans. There are several accommodation options available in and around Kaziranga National Park, including government-run lodges, private resorts, and homestays. The accommodations range from basic to luxurious, depending on the visitor’s budget and preferences.

Q. What is the entry fee for Kaziranga National Park?

Ans. The entry fee for Kaziranga National Park varies depending on the nationality of the visitor. For Indian nationals, the fee is Rs. 100 per person, while for foreign nationals it is Rs. 650 per person. There are also additional charges for camera and vehicle entry.

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