Today we shall learn about “ Biosphere Reserves in India ”. The Biosphere Reserve is a large protected area, so compared to a century or a National Park, a biosphere reserve is a larger protected area and this again is meant for the conservation of wildlife plants and animal resources. Biosphere reserve areas are meant for the conservation of biodiversity of a specific area. The entire flora and fauna in this region are preserved in its natural habitat. It also helps in the maintenance of biodiversity culture.
These areas were created by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization known as UNESCO under a program called Man and Biosphere (MAB) in 1968.
When it comes to a Biosphere Reserve it is made up of three main parts. The first part is the Core Zone which is strongly protected for the conservation of logical diversity and also to make sure that different types of plants and animals are safe from human impact.
The second part is called a Buffer Zone and it surrounds the Core Zones and provides a space for Environmental Research recreation and tourism.
Then comes the last part which is called a Transition Zone. This area is for local communities that have a hand in managing the resources of the area that is through farming, fisheries, and other Non-Governmental activities.
At present India has 80 Biosphere Reserves.
Let’s learn the Important 18 Biosphere names:
Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve in Himachal Pradesh
It has been Valley National Park and it is located within the Lao and Safety district of Himachal Pradesh. The main animal found here is Snow Leopard.
Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in Uttarakhand
It was expanded to encompass the Valley of Flowers National Park and a larger Buffer Zone. It was renamed Nanda Devi and the value of flowers National Park in 2005, Nowadays Nanda Devi biosphere reserve. It covers parts of Chameli with Oregon and the Bageshwar district of Uttarakhand. The main animals found here are Snow Leopard and Himalayan Black bears.
Kanchenjunga Biosphere Reserve in Sikkim
It is a national park and the Biosphere Reserve located in Sikkim. The main animals found here are again Snow Leopard and Red Panda.
Dihang Dibangg Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh
It lies in Arunachal Pradesh. The Mouling National Park and the Dibangg Wildlife Sanctuary are located within this Biosphere Reserve. The reserve spreads over three districts that are the Dibang Valley Upper Siang and West Siang. The main animals that are found here are Mishmi takin and Musk deer.
Dibru Saikhowa National in Assam
It is located in the Dibrugarh and Tinsukia district in Assam. It was designated a Biosphere Reserve in July 1997. The main animal found in this region is Golden Langur.
Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam
It is a National Park, it is UNESCO ‘Natural World Heritage Site. It is a Project Tiger reserve, an Elephant Reserve, and Biosphere Reserve in Assam. The main animal found here is Golden Langur and Red Panda.
Nokerk Biosphere Reserve in Meghalaya
It is the core area is a national park. It is located in the West Garo Hills district of Meghalaya. UNESCO added this national park to its list of Biosphere Reserves in May 2009. The main animal found in this region is Red Panda.
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Kutch Biosphere Reserve in Gujarat
It was designated as a Biosphere Reserve in January 2008. It covers parts of Kutch, Raj Code, Sundar Nagar, and Pattan district. It is the largest Biosphere Reserve in India. The main animal found in this region is Indian Wild Ass.
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Madhya Pradesh
It lies in the Satpura Range of Madhya Pradesh. It is located within the areas of Hoshangabad, Betul, and Chhindwara districts in Madhya Pradesh. The main animals found here are Giant Squirrel and Flying squirrels.
Panna National Park in Madhya Pradesh
It is a national park located in the Panna and Chatrapur district of Madhya Pradesh. It is designated as Biosphere Reserve in August 2011. The main animals found in Panna National Park are Tiger, Sheetal, chinkara, Sambar, and Sloth Bear.
Achanakmar and Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve in Chhatisgarh
It lies in the state of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. In Chhattisgarh it lies in Bilaspur district and in Madhya Pradesh it covers two districts that are Anuppur and Dindori. The main animals found here are Four Horned Antelope, Indian Wild Dog, and White-rumped Vulture.
Sundarban National Park in West Bengal
It is a national park, Tiger Reserve and Biosphere is lying in West Bengal. The main animal found here is Bengal Tiger. In May 1984 it was declared a National Park. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in scripted in 87. It is considered as a World Network of Biosphere Reserve that is Man and Biosphere Reserve in 2001.
Simplipal National Park in Orissa
It lies in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa. This reserve is a part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserve since 2009. The important animals found here are Gao (wild Cow), Royal Bengal Tiger, and Asian Elephants.
Seshachalam Hills Biosphere Reserve in Andhra Pradesh
In 2010 it was designated as a Biosphere Reserve. It spreads over two districts of Chittor and Kadapa of southern Andhra Pradesh. The main animal found here is Slender Loris.
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats
It is an international Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats and the Nilgiri hills ranges of South India. It includes the Madhumalai, Mukurti Nagarhole, and Bandipur national parks.
Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve in Kerala
It was established in 2001 in Kerala. It lies in Kerala as well as Tamil Nadu. Agasthyamala a Biosphere Reserve became a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves in 2016. It is also under the UNESCO world list of Biosphere Reserves. The main animals are Nilgiri Nahar and Elephants.
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park
In 1986 a group of 21 Isolates line of the Tamil Nadu Coast that is between Totto kori and Dhanush kori was declared the Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park. The park and its ten (10) kilometer buffer zone were declared a Biosphere Reserve in 1989. Now it lies one (1) to ten (10) kilometers away from the east coast of Tamil Nadu, South India. It is the core area of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve which was declared in 2001. This includes a ten (10) kilometer buffer zone around the park including the populated coastal area. Gulf of Mannar is also known as the Pearl Banks of India. The endangered species found in this region include Dolphins, Gong’s, whales, and Sea Cucumbers.
Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve
The name itself suggests that it lies in Nicobar Island. Well in this Biosphere lies two different national parks and they are Campbell Bay, National Park. Which lies on the northern part of the Island and the Galathea national path in the southern interiors. The main animals found in this region are Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque, Saltwater crocodile, Giant leatherback sea Turtle, Malayan box Turtle, Nicobar tree Shoe, Reticulated Python, and Giant Robber crab ( also known as coconut crab).
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